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Le Ere del Giappone Elenco

 ere giappone


E' sempre complicato ricordarsi a quale era appartiene un certo periodo storico del Giappone. Ecco l'elenco completo con le date di riferimento. 

Cerchiamo di suddividere le ere per periodi principali, così da non ammassare troppe date insieme, inserendo qualche breve riferimento storico a cui si fa riferimento. Di solito troviamo le date indicati con il kanji 年 e preceduto con l'era di riferimento, es: 明治 per Meiji.

PERIODO DI ASAKUSA (538-710)

Il periodo Asakusa 飛鳥時代, Asuka jidai fa riferimento a un lasso temporale che va dal 538 al 710 d.C. è importante perché dà inizio all'epoca classica del Giappone che vede il suo punto fondatale l'introduzione del Buddismo con la rivoluzione religiosa, culturale e artistica che lo accompagna:

645      大化       Taika  Imperatore Kōtoku, 645–654.
650      白雉       Hakuchi o Hakuhō                                                                                            
686      朱鳥       Shuchō o Suchō, Akamitori oppure Akamidori; Imperatore Tenmu,672–686
701       大宝      Taihō o Daihō; Imperatorer Monmu, 697–707                                               
704       
慶雲      Keiun o yōun; Imperatore Genmei, 707–715                                                                 
708       
和銅      Wadō


PERIODO DI NARA (710-794)

Il periodio di Nara 奈良時代 Nara-jidai è caratterizzato dallo spostamento nel 710 d.C, da parte dell'Imperatrice Gemmei della capitale a Heijō ( corrispondente all'attuale Nara). Il periodo vede vari trasferimenti della capitale a seconda dell'imperatore reggente, un periodo movimentato.
 

715        霊亀              Reiki  Imperatore Genshō, 715–724.                                                                                       
717       
養老             Yōrō
724       
神亀             Jinki o Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724–749
729       
天平             Tenpyō o Tenbyō oppure Tenhei                                                                               
749       
天平感宝   Tenpyō-kanpō o Tenbyō-kanpō                                                                                  
749       
天平勝宝   Tenpyō-shōhō o Tenbyō-shōbō oppure Tenpei-shōhō; Imperatore Kōken, 749–758
757       
天平宝字   Tenpyō-hōji o Tenbyō-hōji oppure Tenpei-hōji; Imperatore Junnin, 758–764;
                                    Imperatore Shōtoku, 764–770
765       
天平神護    Tenpyō-jingo o Tenbyō-jingo oppure Tenhei-jingo                                               
767       
神護景雲     Jingo-keiun
770       
宝亀              Hōki Imperatore Kōnin, 770–781
781       
天応              Ten'ō Imperatorer Kanmu, 781–806
782       
延暦              Enryaku


PERIODO HEIAN (794-1192)

Il periodo Heian 平安時代 Heian jidai prende il nome della capitale dell'epoca Heian-kyo, corrispondente all'attuale Kyoto. Culturalmente parlando è un periodo molto ricco, dove c'è un'assimilazione più profonda della cultura cinese e del buddhismo, sia per la produzione letteraria, che per la cultura e struttura aristocratica del paese.                                        

806        大同      Daidō Imperatore Heizei, 806–809; Imperatore Saga, 809–823                                               
810
        弘仁      Kōnin Imperatore Junna, 823–833
824
        天長      Tenchō Imperatore Ninmyō, 833–850                                                                             
834
        承和      Jōwa o Shōwa oppure Sōwa                                                                                               
848
        嘉祥      Kashō o Kajō; Imperatore Montoku, 850–858.
851
        仁寿      Ninju
854
        斉衡      Saikō
857
        天安      Ten'an o Tennan; Imperatore Seiwa, 858–876
859
        貞観      Jōgan Imperatore Yōzei, 876–884
877
        元慶      Gangyō o Gankyō oppure Genkei; Imperatore Kōkō, 884–887
885
        仁和      Ninna o Ninwa; Imperatore Uda, 887–897
889
        寛平      Kanpyō o Kanpei, Kanbyō, Kanbei o Kanhei; Imperatore Daigo, 887–930              
898
        昌泰      Shōtai
901
        延喜      Engi
923
        延長      Enchō Imperatore Suzaku, 930–946                                                                                 
931
        承平      Jōhei o Shōhei                                                                                                         
938
        天慶      Tengyō o Tenkei oppure Tenkyō; Imperatore Murakami, 946–967                         
947
        天暦      Tenryaku o Tenreki                                                                                                               
957
        天徳      Tentoku
961
        応和      Ōwa
964
        康保      Kōhō  Imperatore Reizei, 967–969                                                                                                   
968
        安和      Anna o Anwa; Imperatore En'yū, 969–984                                                                                    
970
        天禄      Tenroku
973
        天延      Ten'en
976
        貞元      Jōgen o Teigen                                                                                                                       
978
        天元      Tengen
983
        永観      Eikan o Yōkan; Imperatore Kazan, 984–986                                                                                  
985
        寛和      Kanna o Kanwa; Imperatore Ichijō, 986–1011                                                                              
987
        永延      Eien o Yōen                                                                                                                                            
988
        永祚      Eiso o Yōso                                                                                                                              
990
        正暦      Shōryaku o Jōryaku or Shōreki                                               
995
        長徳      Chōtoku
999
        長保      Chōhō
1004
      寛弘      Kankō Imperatore Sanjō, 1011–1016                                                                               
1012
      長和      Chōwa Imperatore Go-Ichijō, 1016–1036
1017
      寛仁      Kannin
1021
      治安      Jian o Chian                                                                                                              
1024
      万寿      Manju
1028
      長元      Chōgen Imperatore Go-Suzaku, 1036–1045                                                     
1037
      長暦      Chōryaku o Chōreki                                                                                                              
1040
      長久      Chōkyū
1044
      寛徳      Kantoku Imperatore Go-Reizei, 1045–1068                                                                    
1046
      永承      Eishō o Eijō o Yōjō                                                                                                  
1053
      天喜      Tengi o Tenki                                                                                                                          
1058
      康平      Kōhe
1065
      治暦      Jiryaku o Chiryaku                                                                                                                 
1069
      延久      Enkyū Imperatore Go-Sanjō, 1068–1073
1074
      承保      Jōhō o Shōhō o Shōho; Imperatore Shirakawa, 1073–1086
1077
      承暦      Jōryaku o Shōryaku o Shōreki                                                
1081
      永保      Eih
1084
      応徳      Ōtoku
1087
      寛治      Kanji Imperatore Horikawa, 1087–1107
1094
      嘉保      Kahō
1096
      永長      Eichō   o ōchō                                                                                                          
1097
      承徳      Jōtoku o Shōtoku                                                                                                    
1099
      康和      Kōwa
1104
      長治      Chōji
1106
      嘉承      Kajō o Kashō o Kasō; Imperatore Toba, 1107–1123                                       
1108
      天仁      Tennin
1110
      天永      Ten'ei o Ten'yō                                                                                                        
1113
      永久      Eikyū o Yōkyū                                                                                                                         
1118
      元永      Gen'en
1120
      保安      Hōan Imperatore Sutoku, 1123–1142
1124
      天治      Tenji o Tenchi                                                                                                                         
1126
      大治      Daiji o Taiji                                                                                                               
1131
      天承      Tenshō o Tenjō               
1132
      長承      Chōshō o Chōjō                                                                         
1135
      保延      Hōen
1141
      永治      Eiji
1142
      康治      Kōji Imperatore Konoe, 1142–1155
1144
      天養      Ten'yō o Tennyō                                                                                                                    
1145
      久安      Kyūan
1151
      仁平      Ninpei so Ninpyō o Ninbyō o Ninhyō o Ninhei                                                               
1154
      久寿      Kyūju Imperatore Go-Shirakawa, 1155–1158
1156
      保元      Hōgen o Hogen; Imperatore Nijō, 1158–1165
1159
      平治      Heiji o Byōji                                    
1160
      永暦      Eiryaku o Yōryaku                                                                                    
1161
      応保      Ōhō
1163
      長寛      Chōkan                                                                                                                      
1165
      永万      Eiman o Yōman; Imperatore Rokujō, 1165–1168
1166
      仁安      Nin'an o Ninnan; Imperatore Takakura, 1168–1180
1169
      嘉応      Kaō
1171
      承安      Jōan o Shōan                                                                                                            
1175
      安元      Angen
1177
      治承      Jishō o Jijō o Chishō; Imperatore Antoku, 1180–1185
1181
      養和      Yōwa
1182
      寿永      Juei Imperatorer Go-Toba, 1183–1198
1184
      元暦      Genryaki
1185
      文治      Bunji o Monchi                                                                                                                       
1190
      建久      Kenkyū Imperatore Tsuchimikado, 1198–1210


PERIODO KAMAKURA (1192-1333)

Il periodo Kamakura 鎌倉時代 Kamakura-jidai è segnato dallo shogunato Kamakura 鎌倉幕府 Kamakura bakufu, insediato nel 1192 dallo shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo 源 頼朝 

1199      正治      Shōji
1201     
建仁      Kennin
1204     
元久      Genkyū
1206     
建永      Ken'ei also Ken'yō                                                                                                   
1207     
承元      Jōgen o Shōgen; Imperatore Juntoku, 1210–1221
1211     
建暦      Kenryaku
1213     
建保      Kenpō o Kenhō                                                                                                        
1219     
承久      Jōkyū o Shōkyū; Imperatore Chūkyō, 1221 Imperatore Go-Horikawa, 1221–1232
1222     
貞応      Jōō o Teiō                                                                                                                 
1224     
元仁      Gennin
1225     
嘉禄      Karoku
1227     
安貞      Antei o Anjō                                                                                                                            
1229     
寛喜      Kangi o Kanki                                                                                                           
1232     
貞永      Jōei o Teiei; Imperatore Shijō, 1232–1242
1233     
天福      Tenpuku o Tenfuku                                                                                                                
1234     
文暦      Bunryaku o Monryaku o Monreki                                                                                      
1235     
嘉禎      Katei
1238     
暦仁      Ryakunin o Rekinin                                                                                                 
1239     
延応      En'ō o Ennō                                                                                               
1240     
仁治      Ninji o Ninchi; Imperatore Go-Saga, 1242–1246
1243     
寛元      Kangen Imperatore Go-Fukakusa, 1246–1260
1247     
宝治      Hōji
1249     
建長      Kenchō
1256     
康元      Kōgen Imperatore Kameyama, 1260–1274
1257     
正嘉      Shōka
1259     
正元      Shōgen
1260     
文応      Bun'ō o Bunnō                                                                                                         
1261     
弘長      Kōchō
1264     
文永      Bun'ei Imperatore Go-Uda, 1274–1287
1275     
建治      Kenji
1278     
弘安      Kōan Imperatore Fushimi, 1287–1298.[59]
1288     
正応      Shōō
1293     
永仁      Einin Imperatore Go-Fushimi, 1298–1301
1299     
正安      Shōan Imperatore Go-Nijō, 1301–1308
1
302      乾元      Kengen                                                                                                                      
1303     
嘉元      Kagen
1306     
徳治      Tokuji
1308     
延慶      Enkyō o Engyō o Enkei; Imperatore Hanazono, 1308–1318
1311     
応長      Ōchō
1312     
正和      Shōwa
1317     
文保      Bunpō o Bunhō Imperatore Go-Daigo, 1318–1339
1319     
元応      Gen'ō o Gennō                                                            
1321     
元亨      Genkō  
1324     
正中      Shōchū                                             
1326     
嘉暦      Karyaku
1329     
元徳      Gentoku
1331     
元弘      Genkō


PERIODO NANBOKU-CHO (1334-1392)

Il periodo Nanbokucho 南北朝時代 Nanbokuchō jidai, detto anche Periodo delle Corti del Nord e del Sud, è segnato dalla contrapposizione di due corti imperiali nei primi anni dell'epoca Muromachi sotto lo shogunato degli Ashikaga.
Lla Corte del Nord, insediata da Ashikaga Takauji, aveva sede a Kyōto ed era appoggiata dal Bakufu degli Ashikaga mentre la Corte del Sud era stata fondata dall'imperatore Go-Daigo e aveva sede a Yoshino presso Nara. 

 

 Nanboku-chō Corte del Sud 

1334      建武      Kenmu o Kenbu                                                                                                                      
1336     
延元      Engen
1340     
興国      Kōkoku
1346     
正平      Shōhei
1370     
建徳      Kentoku
1372     
文中      Bunchū
1375     
天授      Tenju
1381     
弘和      Kōwa   
1384      元中      Genchū Genchū 9 diventa Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō riunificazione

 Nanboku-chō Corte del nord 

1332      正慶      Shōkei o Shōkyō                                                                                                                    
1334     
建武      Kenmu o Kenbu                                                                                                       
1338     
暦応      Ryakuō o Rekiō                                                                                                                      
1342     
康永      Kōei
1345     
貞和      Jōwa o Teiwa                                                                                                                          
1350     
観応      Kannō o Kan'ō                                                                                                         
1352     
文和      Bunna o Bunwa                                                                                        
1356     
延文      Enbun
1361     
康安      Kōan
1362     
貞治      Jōji o Teiji                                                                                                                                 
1368     
応安      Ōan
1375     
永和      Eiwa
1379     
康暦      Kōryaku
1381     
永徳      Eitoku
1384     
至徳      Shitoku
1387     
嘉慶      Kakei o Kakyō       
1390      明徳      Meitoku Meitoku 3 diventa Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō riunificazione

PERIODO MUROMACHI (1392-1573)

Il periodo Muromachi 室町時代 Muromachi jidai  va dal 1336, data dell'ascesa a shōgun di Ashikaga Takauji, fino al 1573 quando l'ultimo shogun Ashikaga fu cacciato da Kyoto. Il nome è legato al quartiere di Kyoto dove gli shogun Ashikaga instaurarono la propria residenza dopo il 1378. È chiamato anche periodo Ashikaga perché coincide con lo shogunato Ashikaga.

 

1394      応永      Ōei Imperatore Shōkō, 1412–1428
1428      正長      Shōchō Imperatore Go-Hanazono, 1428–1464
1429      永享      Eikyō o Eikō                                                                                                                            
1441     
嘉吉      Kakitsu o Kakichi                                                                                                                    
1444     
文安      Bun'an o Bunnan                                                                                                                   
1449     
宝徳      Hōtoku
1452     
享徳      Kyōtoku
1455     
康正      Kōshō
1457     
長禄      Chōroku
1460      寛正      Kanshō Imperatore Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464–1500
1466      文正      Bunshō o Monshō                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1467      応仁      Ōnin
1469     
文明      Bunmei
1487     
長享      Chōkyō
1489     
延徳      Entoku
1492     
明応      Meiō Imperatore Go-Kashiwabara, 1500–1526
1501      文亀      Bunki
1504      永正      Eishō
1521      大永      Daiei Imperatore Go-Nara, 1526–1557
1528      享禄      Kyōroku
1532      天文      Tenbun o Tenmon                                                                                                                                                                                           
1555      弘治      Kōji Imperatore Ōgimachi, 1557–1586
1558      永禄      Eiroku
1570      元亀      Genki

PERIODO AZUCHI-MOMOYAMA (1573-1603)

 Il periodo Azuchi-Momoyama 安土桃山時代 Azuchi Momoyama jidai è l'epoca dei tre unificatori del Giappone. Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi e Tokugawa Ieyasu  che trasformarono nuovamente il Giappone degli Stati combattenti 戦国時代 Sengoku jidai in uno stato unitario. 
 

1573      天正      Tenshō Imperatore Go-Yōzei, 1586–1611
1592     
文禄      Bunroku
1596     
慶長      Keichō o Kyōchō; Imperatore Go-Mizunoo, 1611–1629

PERIODO EDO (1603-1867)

Il periodo Edo 江戸時代 Edo jidai,  anche noto come periodo Tokugawa 徳川時代 Tokugawa jidai cui la famiglia Tokugawa detenne attraverso il bakufu il massimo potere politico e militare nel paese. Il periodo prende il nome dalla capitale Edo, sede dello shōgun, ribattezzata Tokyo nel 1869.

 
1615      元和      Genna o Genwa                                                                                                                     
1624     
寛永      Kan'ei Imperatore Meishō, 1629–1643 Imperatore Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654
1644     
正保      Shōhō
1648     
慶安      Keian o Kyōan                                                                                                                         
1652     
承応      Jōō o Shōō; Imperatore Go-Sai, 1655–1663
1655     
明暦      Meireki o Myōryaku o Meiryaku                                                                                        
1658     
万治      Manji
1661     
寛文      Kanbun Imperatore Reigen, 1663–1687
1673     
延宝      Enpō o Enhō                                                                                                                           
1681     
天和      Tenna o Tenwa                                                                                                                      
1684     
貞享      Jōkyō Imperatore Higashiyama, 1687–1709
1688     
元禄      Genroku
1704     
宝永      Hōei Imperatore Nakamikado, 1709–1735
1711     
正徳      Shōtoku
1716     
享保      Kyōhō Imperatore Sakuramachi, 1735–1747
1736     
元文      Genbun
1741     
寛保      Kanpō o Kanhō                                                                                                                       
1744     
延享      Enkyō Imperatore Momozono, 1747–1762
1748     
寛延      Kan'en
1751     
宝暦      Hōreki o Hōryaku; Imperatore Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771
1764     
明和      Meiwa Imperatore Go-Momozono, 1771–1779
1772     
安永      An'ei Imperatore Kōkaku, 1780–1817
1781     
天明      Tenmei
1789     
寛政      Kansei
1801     
享和      Kyōwa
1804     
文化      Bunka Imperatore Ninkō, 1817–1846
1818     
文政      Bunsei
1830     
天保      Tenpō o Tenhō                                                                                                                                      
1844     
弘化      Kōka Imperatore Kōmei, 1846–1867.
1848     
嘉永      Kaei
1854     
安政      Ansei
1860     
万延      Man'en
1861     
文久      Bunkyū
1864     
元治      Genji
1865     
慶応      Keiō

PERIODO MODERNO (1868- ad oggi)

Ultimi anni del 19mo secolo fino d oggi a coprire gli anni dell'attuale imperatore Akihito.
 
1868      明治      Meiji Imperatore Meiji, 1868–1912.
1912     
大正      Taishō Imperatore Taishō, 1912–1926.
1926     
昭和      Shōwa Imperatore Shōwa, 1926–1989.
1989     
平成      Heisei Akihito, 1989–2019.
2019      明仁      Akihito,  2019 Heisei - Ad oggi.

 

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